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Discover The Cultural and Historical





Cultural tours are a popular product in Tanzania that is mostly sold as an add-on to enrich main safari tour programs. Most cultural tour sites in mainland Tanzania were developed by the Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB) in conjunction with the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV), starting with selected villages around Arusha in northern Tanzania and spreading out into other areas. These are traditionally existing villages which have been made accessible to visitors who may have a glimpse of the authentic lifestyle of the more than 120 tribes in rural Tanzania. Most visitors to Africa, especially first-timers, find the continent and its people enchantingly different and special experience. We are Trust Tours and Safaris Company appreciate this fact and endeavour to include visits to the local communities to give our guests the opportunity to see first hand the way of life in a typical African village.

Besides enriching itineraries and adding quality to the tours offered in Tanzania, the cultural tours are generating direct income to the local communities that are being visited, contributing to their development. Thus by visiting the cultural sites the guests would be giving support to community health, water supply, primary education, and many other social and economic projects carried out at the village level as well as reforestation and protection of the environment. Some of the popular cultural centres which may be tailored into visitor itineraries include:

• Mto wa Mbu, a multicultural village-cum-town near Lake Manyara National Park
• Maasai Boma and villages in Ngorongoro Conservation Area

• Lake Eyasi, land of the Hadzabe and Datoge
• Arusha – Ng’ireshi village of Waarusha tribe, relatives of the Maasai, 7km from Arusha town
• Arusha – Mulala village of Waarusha and Wameru tribes, 30kms from Arusha town
• Full-Day Materuni Waterfall

• Coffee Tour Kikuletwa.
• Hot Spring swimming
• Tour Coffee Cultural Tours
• Wameru Culture and coffee Tours Lake Eyasi –

• The Ha

Lake Eyasi is a very scenic soda lake found on the southern border of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, a couple of hours drive from Karatu. This less visited lake lies at the base of the Eyasi escarpment on the western Great Rift Valley wall, bordered by the Eyasi Escarpment in the northwest and the Kidero Mountains in the south. This is a hot, dry land, around which live the Hadzabe people, often associated with the Khoisan languages in Southern Africa because of their click language. The Hadzabe are believed to have lived here for nearly 10,000 years and continue to follow hunting-and-gathering traditions. Also in the area are the Iraqw (Mbulu), a people of Cushitic origin who arrived about 2000 years ago, as well as the Datoga also Cushitic, the Maasai, and various Bantu groups including the Nyakyusa, Nyamwezi, Chaga, and Meru. The area is Tanzania’s main onion-growing centre, and there are impressive irrigation systems along the Chemchem River drawing its water from natural springs. The Hadzabe, a hunter-gatherer tribe, live close to the shores of Lake Eyasi, as do the Nilotic-speaking Datoga tribe who are pastoralists. Visits to these tribes are possible on half-day or full-day excursions which would include a visit to their homesteads, learning about their way of life, medicinal plants, and even animal tracking with bows and arrows with the Hadzabe hunters.

The Hadzabe – what you can learn from the Hadzabe
• Different kinds of materials being used to make arrows – arrow sticks, the preparation of poison, and the point of poison in the arrow
• Processing poison from the poison tree
• Fruit, root tubers, and honey collection
• Shallow wells prepared by women for water collection from the ground for home use
• Traditional dancing
• Barbeque preparation of fresh meat for the lucky days of hunting, normally about 2 -3 days of big kills per week but small kills are regular and common
• How to make fire the traditional way, in the ancient hand-drill method using palms of the hands and two pieces of sticks/wood
• Training and exercise in arrow shooting and targeting
• Preparation of huts for the women (being made of branches of trees)
• Studying the availability of animals for hunting and timing too, as hunting is normally done early morning, and at night for the baboons and traps – common animals are monkeys, baboons, dik-dik, kudu, impala, guinea fowls
• Life in the caves in the rainy season, and under trees in the dry season
• The monogamy practice for the marriage
• Training of youngsters in hunting & targeting The Datoga – what you can learn from the Datoga
• General lifestyle of the Datoga
• How mud & cow dung huts are being prepared by women
• Preparation of the boma ( the cattle fence)

• Learning the way men and women dress
• Learning the art of women like jewellery making – e.g. necklaces, bracelets, beads, skin skirts, etc
• Learn about blacksmiths, weapons & weapon-making
• Cow milking and preparation of local butter
• Learn the history of polygamy in the Datoga tribe
• Flour making by women using grinding stones
• Preparation of “gissuda” – a local beer – for ceremonies, weddings, prayers to gods & ancestors. The type of honey used is absolutely natural and women are not allowed to drink this local beer made out of honey & some natural tubers. Learn the history of underground springs in Lake Eyasi, these springs have the extension of about 1km forming Chemchem River which sustains all irrigation in the basin The tribes who farm the Lake Eyasi basin include the native Iraqw, the Nyakyusa, Nyamwezi, Chagga, Meru mostly living around the main settlement in the area. Crops being grown around Lake Eyasi include maize, cassava, bananas, potatoes, beans, and onions which is the chief commercial produce found in irrigated farms…

Arusha – Ng’iresi village of Waarusha tribe
Ngi’iresi Village is located about 07 kilometres from Arusha town on the lower slopes of Mount Meru, the second-highest mountain in Tanzania (4566m). The inhabitants of the village are farmers of the Wa-Arusha tribe. The Wa-Arusha are relatives of the Maasai but have gradually shifted from pastoralism to mixed farming with agriculture being the main activity.

There is the opportunity to gain an insight into the culture of the Wa-Arusha tribe: listen to age-old stories, visit traditional houses, (optional – indulge in a delicious lunch and/or dinner prepared by the Juhudi Women’s Group). One can take a half-day or full-day guided tour to this village on the foothills of Mount Meru, visiting some farms and several development projects in the village including soil conservation, irrigation, crossbreeding, biogas production; coffee and tea can be served at Mzee Loti’s farm. Walk to the nearby “bomas”, to see the various styles of traditional Maasai and Wa-Arusha houses.
Climb Lekimana hill, from where you can have a beautiful view of Arusha town and the surrounding Maasai plains, on a clear day Kilimanjaro is visible from here. The tour can include a climb to Kivesi Hill, an old volcano with a natural forest at the summit.

Arusha – Mulala village of Wameru and Waarusha.

Mulala village is a typical rural setting on the southern lower slopes of Mount Meru, located about 30kms from Arusha town off the Moshi / Arusha highway near Usa River. Mulala Cultural Tourism Program is run by the Agape Women’s Group who offers a tour of traditional activities of about 1-2 hours where one can visit farms and learn about farming methods and various economic activities they have started including cheese-making, bread-making, preparing flower seeds, chilli growing, and sewing. Another tour is the Marisha River Tour (2 hours) where a local guide will show you common medicinal plants used by the villagers, then take you on to the Ziwa la Mzungu (White Man’s Lake) where a big colony of fruit bats thrives, or perhaps take the Lemeka Hill Tour (2 hours) where you can walk through the coffee and banana plantations and head up Lemeka Hill for breathtaking views of both Mounts Kilimanjaro and Meru and of the Maasai Plains and on the way back a visit to the traditional village healer. There is also a place for overnight camping and simple traditional meals for those wishing to spend a night. The Mulala Cultural Tourism Programme is the only one completely launched, developed and implemented by women as a means to self-sufficiency.

Tanzania also boasts of a number of world-famous historical and pre-historic sites some dating as far back as 2 million years ago:
• Oldupai Gorge – popularly known as The Cradle of Humankind home of the Nutcracker Man (Zinjanhtropus) capable of making simple stone tools believed to have lived nearly 2 million years ago
• Kondoa Rock Paintings of Kolo – amazing art dating more than 5000 years, UNESCO World Heritage Site
• Kilwa – the ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara depicting early Swahili civilization on the East African coast, UNESCO World Heritage Site
• Zanzibar – the Stone Town of Zanzibar steeped in history, UNESCO World Heritage Site
• Bagamoyo – Kaole Ruins, the embarkation port for slaves, 75km from Dar es Salaam

OLDUPAI GORGE

​ The Olduvai Gorge popularly referred to as “The Cradle of Humankind”, is the site where in 1959 Dr. Louis Leakey discovered the skull of Zinjanthropus or “Nutcracker Man” believed to have lived 1.75 million years ago. Later reclassified as Australopithecus boisei, this creature had a massive skull though small-brained (500 cc) with huge teeth. Several months later Dr. Leakey found another fossil hominid in the same layer of excavation, called Homo habilis or “handyman”, smaller than the “Nutcracker Man” but with a larger brain (600 cc) and capable of making simple stone tools.